Shallow water generally refers to depths up to 20 metres
Low cost hand pumps can be installed and involves digging by hand and should involve forming up the well using materials such as bricks and concrete. A hand operated pump can be installed or a small solar powered system.
Cost & Impact: Low cost, simple and cost effective. The water can be open to contamination. Shallow wells can be reliant on seasonal discharge from rain, therefore the water source can tend to fail during periods of low rainfall.