A piped water system is typically run from an open water source
such as rivers, streams or lakes

The water source is typically a long distance from where it is needed and will have to run through a pipeline.  When water is piped, it is essential that the elevation from the source to the discharge is calculated accurately in order to size correct pumps and pipelines.

Water is piped into some sort of water storage typically at the highest point closest to where it is needed.  Often gravity can be used or may require some form of mechanical pumping to move the water from an open source through a piped system over distance.

There are contaminants in an open water source and the water often needs to be treated somehow to make it safe e.g. with filtration.

A village water supply such as Nepal may involve the construction of water outlets or tap off-takes from the pipeline throughout the village.

             Cost & Impact:  A piped water system can become complex and expensive when water needs to be transferred uphill and requires skilled engineering when transferring water any distance in a piped system.  Typically the further the distance from the source to the household, the higher the cost.

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